Radiography Testing

The radiation used in radiography testing is a higher energy (shorter wavelength) version of the electromagnetic waves that we see as visible light. The radiation can come from an X-ray generator or a radioactive source.

Gamma Ray, Cranking Unit, ANDREX X-RAY, Survey Meter, Lead Apron


Ultrasonic Testing

Ultrasonic Testing (UT) uses high frequency sound energy to conduct examinations and make measurements. Ultrasonic inspection can be used for flaw detection/evaluation, dimensional measurements, material characterization, and more. To illustrate the general inspection principle, a typical pulse/echo inspection configuration as illustrated below will be used.

A typical UT inspection system consists of several functional units, such as the pulser/receiver, transducer, and display devices. A pulser/receiver is an electronic device that can produce high voltage electrical pulses. Driven by the pulser, the transducer generates high frequency ultrasonic energy. The sound energy is introduced and propagates through the materials in the form of waves. When there is a discontinuity (such as a crack) in the wave path, part of the energy will be reflected back from the flaw surface. The reflected wave signal is transformed into an electrical signal by the transducer and is displayed on a screen. In the applet below, the reflected signal strength is displayed versus the time from signal generation to when a echo was received. Signal travel time can be directly related to the distance that the signal traveled. From the signal, information about the reflector location, size, orientation and other features can sometimes be gained.



Magnetic Particle Testing

The part is magnetized.  Finely milled iron particles coated with a dye pigment are then applied to the specimen. These particles are attracted to magnetic flux leakage fields and will cluster to form an indication directly over the discontinuity.  This indication can be visually detected under proper lighting conditions.


Dye Penetrant Testing

A liquid with high surface wetting characteristics is applied to the surface of the part and allowed time to seep into surface breaking defects.The excess liquid is removed from the surface of the part. A developer (powder) is applied to pull the trapped penetrant out the defect and spread it on the surface where it can be seen.

Positive Material (PMI)

X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analysis are based on the interaction of matter with x-rays which are short-wavelength, high-energy beams of electromagnetic radiation. XRF analysis utilizes the fact that when a primary x-ray beam strikes a substance, it excites elements at the atomic level, causing electron movement. Each element has characteristic emissions of secondary (fluorescent) x-rays when these movements occur, identifying the elemental composition of the substance. These non-destructive, rapid analysis techniques are widely used to determine the composition of metals, alloys, glass, ceramics, minerals and countless other materials.